Oral Cancer: Facts, Signs, and Prevention


Introduction: Oral Cancer: Facts, Signs, and Prevention

Oral cancer is a serious and life-threatening condition that affects millions of people worldwide. This article aims to shed light on the facts and signs of oral cancer and provide essential information on its prevention. By understanding the warning signs, risk factors, and available treatment options, you can play an active role in safeguarding your oral health.

Understanding Oral Cancer

Types of Oral Cancer

Oral cancer typically begins in the cells that line the inside of the mouth, throat, or lips. There are several types of oral cancers, but the most common is squamous cell carcinoma. Other forms include adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, and melanoma.

Risk Factors

Numerous factors increase the likelihood of developing oral cancer, such as:

  1. Tobacco use, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco.
  2. Excessive alcohol consumption.
  3. Prolonged sun exposure, particularly for lip cancer.
  4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  5. A weakened immune system.
  6. Poor oral hygiene and dental health.
  7. A history of previous head or neck cancer.

Oral Cancer Statistics

Oral cancer accounts for about 3% of all cancer cases in the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, nearly 54,000 Americans are expected to be diagnosed with oral or oropharyngeal cancer annually. Moreover, about 10,850 people die from the disease each year. Men are more likely to develop oral cancer than women, and the risk increases with age.

Warning Signs and Symptoms

Common Symptoms

Watch out for the following symptoms that might indicate oral cancer:

  1. Persistent sores or ulcers in the mouth that don’t heal.
  2. Red or white patches on the gums, tongue, or lining of the mouth.
  3. Loose teeth without an apparent cause.
  4. Difficulty chewing or swallowing.
  5. A lump or thickening in the cheek or neck.
  6. Unexplained numbness or pain in the mouth or face.
  7. Persistent sore throat or hoarseness.
  8. Ear pain.

When to See a Dentist

If you notice any of the above symptoms lasting for more than two weeks, consult your dentist or healthcare provider immediately. Early detection and treatment can significantly improve the chances of successful treatment.

Oral Cancer Diagnosis

Screening Methods

Dentists and healthcare professionals perform oral cancer screenings during routine dental checkups. This examination involves visually inspecting and palpating the oral cavity for any abnormalities. Additional diagnostic tests may

be required if any suspicious areas are found, including:

  1. Oral brush biopsy: A small brush is used to collect cells from the affected area for laboratory analysis.
  2. Incisional biopsy: A small piece of tissue is removed and examined under a microscope.
  3. Imaging tests: X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, or PET scans may be used to determine the extent of the cancer and whether it has spread.

Stages of Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is categorized into stages based on the size, location, and extent of the tumor. Staging helps determine the most appropriate treatment plan. The stages are:

  1. Stage 0: Abnormal cells are present but haven’t spread to nearby tissue.
  2. Stage I: The tumor is small and hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.
  3. Stage II: The tumor is larger but still hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or distant sites.
  4. Stage III: The tumor has grown even larger or has spread to one nearby lymph node.
  5. Stage IV: The cancer has spread to nearby tissues, multiple lymph nodes, or distant parts of the body.

Treatment Options


Surgical removal of the tumor is a common treatment for oral cancer. Depending on the tumor’s size and location, this may involve removing a portion of the tongue, jaw, or throat. In more advanced cases, reconstructive surgery may be necessary to restore function and appearance.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. It can be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or chemotherapy. External beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy (placing radioactive seeds near the tumor) are common methods for treating oral cancer.


Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be administered intravenously or taken orally. Chemotherapy can be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or radiation therapy.

Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy drugs specifically target cancer cells while causing less harm to healthy cells. These medications can be used alone or alongside other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Preventing Oral Cancer

Lifestyle Changes

To reduce your risk of developing oral cancer, consider making the following lifestyle changes:

  1. Quit tobacco use in all forms.
  2. Limit alcohol consumption.
  3. Protect your lips from excessive sun exposure by using a lip balm with SPF.
  4. Maintain good oral hygiene and visit your dentist regularly for checkups and cleanings.
  5. Eat a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

Regular Dental Checkups

Routine dental checkups are crucial for early detection of oral cancer. Your dentist can identify potential warning signs and provide guidance on maintaining good oral health.

Early Detection

Stay vigilant and monitor any changes in your mouth. If you notice any symptoms of oral cancer, seek medical attention promptly. Early detection significantly increases the chances of successful treatment.


Oral cancer is a serious condition that can have devastating consequences if not detected and treated early. By understanding the risk factors, warning signs, and available treatment options, you can play an active role in protecting your oral health. Remember to maintain a healthy lifestyle, attend regular dental checkups, and act swiftly if you notice any concerning symptoms.


What is the primary cause of oral cancer?

Tobacco use, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco, is the leading cause of oral cancer.

Can oral cancer be cured?

If detected and treated early, oral cancer can often be cured. The chances of successful treatment decrease as the cancer progresses, so early detection is crucial.

Is oral cancer painful?

Oral cancer can cause pain, but not all oral cancer cases are painful. Some individuals may experience painless sores or ulcers. It’s essential to consult a healthcare professional if you notice any unusual changes in your mouth, regardless of whether they are painful or not.

How often should I have an oral cancer screening?

Oral cancer screenings should be part of your regular dental checkups, typically occurring every six months. However, if you have a higher risk due to tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, or a family history of oral cancer, you may need more frequent screenings.

Can oral cancer be prevented?

While it’s not possible to completely eliminate the risk of oral cancer, you can significantly reduce your risk by adopting a healthy lifestyle, quitting tobacco use, limiting alcohol consumption, protecting your lips from sun exposure, maintaining good oral hygiene, and attending regular dental checkups.

Does oral HPV always lead to oral cancer?

While oral HPV infection is a risk factor for oral cancer, not all individuals with the virus will develop cancer. Practicing safe sex and getting vaccinated against HPV can help reduce the risk of oral cancer.

Are there any visible signs of oral cancer?

Visible signs of oral cancer may include persistent sores, red or white patches, lumps, or thickening in the mouth or throat. It’s important to be proactive and consult a healthcare professional if you notice any unusual changes in your oral cavity.

Dr. Michael Koumas DDS PC standing next to his logo in one of his operatories signifying he is a dentist in newburgh ny who has been serving the Hudson Valley for over 23 years

Dr. Michael Koumas, DDS PC

General and Cosmetic Dentist in Newburgh, NY.
4 Hudson Valley Professional Plaza
Newburgh, NY 12550
(845) 562-1108


With over 23 years of serving the Newburgh community, we’ve earned a reputation for providing top-quality dental care in a comfortable and welcoming environment, helping our patients achieve optimal oral health..

Whether you and your family need routine cleanings, fillings, or more complex dental procedures, my team and I are committed to providing the best possible dental care to you and yours.  After all, you’re not just our patients, you’re part of our dental family.

If you need any dental care in Newburgh, NY don’t hesitate to reach out to schedule an appointment today by calling our office at (845) 562-1108 and experience the difference that Dr. Michael Koumas, DDS PC can make in your oral health.

About Dr. Michael Koumas, DDS PC


Dr. Michael Koumas, DDS, PC, is a highly respected and experienced dentist based in Newburgh, NY, with over 23 years of dedicated service in the Hudson Valley area. His dental practice, located at 4 Hudson Valley Professional Plaza, Newburgh, NY 12550, is renowned for providing comprehensive dental care. Dr. Koumas and his skilled team offer a wide range of services, including preventive, restorative, cosmetic, periodontal, endodontics, oral surgery, prosthodontics, and emergency dental care.

The practice is known for its commitment to using state-of-the-art technology, ensuring accurate and efficient treatments. Digital x-rays and intraoral cameras are among the advanced tools used to provide the best care possible. Dr. Koumas’s approach to dental care is patient-centric, focusing on personalized treatment plans that address each patient’s unique needs and concerns.

Understanding that dental visits can be stressful for some, Dr. Koumas’s office has created a warm and welcoming environment to help patients feel at ease. The practice also emphasizes affordable dental care, offering flexible payment options and an in-office dental plan that includes diagnostic exams, routine x-rays, dental cleanings, and discounts on additional services.

The team at Dr. Koumas’s office comprises experienced dental professionals who are dedicated to providing personalized care. This commitment to excellence in dental health and patient comfort makes Dr. Koumas’s practice a trusted choice for dental care in the Newburgh, NY area.





American Dental Association (ADA) – A leading authority in the dental community, the ADA is renowned for advancing dental health, setting high professional standards, and providing valuable resources for dental professionals and the public.

World Health Organization (WHO) – As a global leader in public health, the WHO offers extensive information on a variety of health topics, including dental and oral health. They provide an abundance of data, guidelines, and research findings.

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research – Part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, this institute is dedicated to research in oral, dental, and craniofacial health, contributing significantly to scientific understanding and advancements in these areas.

WebDMD – This platform offers comprehensive information on dental conditions, treatments, and general oral health, serving as an educational resource for both dental professionals and the general public.



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